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Obesity had a genetic component, it is not a simple genetic disorder. There is an underlying genetic predisposition to obesity on to which environmental factors are layered. The discovery of 'ob' gene, which was mapped to chromosome 7, has led to a renewed interest in understanding the patho-biological basis of genetic predisposition in obesity. The 'ob' gene codes a hormone called leptin, a 167 amino acid protein and was supposed to be produced in white and brown adipose tissue and placenta. The leptin receptors are concentrated in hypothalamus and belong to the same class of IL-2 and growth hormone receptors. Any mutation of 'ob' gene leads to improper coding of leptin, which further results in obesity. The effects of the 'ob' gene are mediated through effects on both energy intake and energy expenditure. Obesity can also be considered as a "complex trait" as many other genes coding proteins like apolipoprotein B, D, E, β3-adrenergic receptor, dopamine D2-receptor, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), glucocorticoid receptor etc. are associated with it. So far, 200 genes, gene markers and chromosomal regions have been associated with human obesity.