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Obesity is the result of an imbalance between daily energy intake and energy expenditure resulting in excessive weight gain. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, caused by a myriad of genetic, cultural, and societal factors. Various genetic studies have shown that obesity is extremely heritable, with numerous genes identified with adiposity and weight gain. Other causes of obesity include reduced physical activity, insomnia, endocrine disorders, medications, the accessibility and consumption of excess carbohydrates and high-sugar foods, and decreased energy metabolism.
The most common syndromes associated with obesity include Prader Willi syndrome and MC4R syndromes, less commonly fragile X, Bardet-Beidl syndrome, Wilson Turner congenital leptin deficiency, and Alstrom syndrome.